CHORD CONSTRUCTION: a table 

SPACING

Comments

close

S and T no more than an 8ve apart.

open

S and T more than an 8ve apart.

keyboard style

S, A, T together on top staff, bass alone on bass staff. Top three voices <= 8ve from lowest to highest note.

chorale style (SATB)

S and A on top staff, T and B on bottom staff. <= 8ve between S and A, and between A and T.

             

DOUBLING

Comments

double most stable element first

R, unless R = LT (primary or secondary, as in tonicization)

5th, unless 5th is dissonant (d or A)

3rd, unless 3rd is LT

chord 7th, NEVER

LT, NEVER (when the chord proceeds to I)

incomplete?

Leave out 5th, double according to above principles (usually root)

complete?

All inverted chords, diminished and 1/2-diminished 7th chords.

             

RANGE (chorale style)

Comments

soprano (S)

C4 - A5

alto (A)

F3 - D5

tenor

C3 - G4

bass

C2 - C4

 

Copyright © 2001 Irene Girton