Refer to Gauldin, Harmonic Practice in Tonal Music (W.W. Norton, 1997), for further information.

See pp40, 106, 108, 128, 133, 160.


1.    Stem all structural tones of the tonic chord and the cadence, with upward stems for soprano and downward stems for the bass. The bass of I6 is usually stemmed, unless it is part of a I I6 I arpeggiation.

2.    Black stemmed noteheads represent essential chord tones.

3.    Black stemless noteheads represent less essential or embellishing tones.

4.    Stem (don't beam) first and last notes of tonic arpeggiations in soprano, connecting them with slurs.

5.    Stem first note of dominant arpeggiations and connect the arpeggiation with slurs.

6.    Beam stemmed notes of essential voice leading in outer voices. Soprano will often show a stepwise descent to 1 or 8; bass will be cadential, as in the 1 4 5 1 progression.

7.    Embellishing chords, such as N or P chords, are represented by stemless noteheads in soprano and bass, with slurs to show VL connections with the essential harmonies which frame embellishing chords.

8.   When one progression is embedded within another progression at a deeper structural level, use different stem directions and slurs to denote separate voice parts.

Gauldin p. 160, with IMG's annotations